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Freud’s ideas are seen as inherently gender biased, but it must be remembered that he was a product of his time.
He saw ‘Biology as destiny’ and women’s roles as prescribed & predetermined.
Judgements about an individual women’s ability are made on the basis of average differences between the sexes or biased sex-role stereotypes, and this also had the effect of lowering women’s self esteem; making them, rather than men, think they have to improve themselves (Tavris, 1993).
Kohlberg based his stages of moral development around male moral reasoning and had an all-male sample.
• Has led to healthy criticism of cultural values that praise certain ‘male’ qualities such as aggression and individualism as desirable, adaptive and universal.
Consequences of Gender Bias Kitzinger (1998) argue that questions about sex differences aren’t just scientific questions – they’re also political (women have same rights as men).
• Women and men might be treated differently by researchers.
Suggest the impact that these research examples could have on society Freud and many of his followers believed that biological differences between men and women had major consequences for psychological development. Freud believed that gender divergence begins at the onset of the phallic stage, where the girl realises that she has no penis, and starts to feel inferior to boys (penis envy).
Penis envy becomes a major driving force in the girl’s mental life, and needs to be successfully sublimated into a desire for a husband and children if it is not to become pathological.
• Could create artificial differences or mask real ones. • A psychology for women, rather than a psychology of women. Identify aspects of the research that could be considered gender biased 2.
Equal opportunity legislation and feminist psychology have performed the valuable functions of reducing institutionalised gender bias and drawing attention to sources of bias and under-researched areas in psychology like childcare, sexual abuse, dual burden working and prostitution. • View of women as normal humans, not deficient men. Identify and explain the type of gender bias that is present 3.