Dating tyre shekel
For further details of the type see BMCPhoenicia cxxxiv-cxxxv and 233.] Denominations of shekels, half-shekels, and, in extremely rare cases, quarter shekels, were struck. Sidon struck fewer silver issues than Tyre, [BMCPhoenicia 158-161.], but it is noteworthy that most of this city's production of shekels and half-shekels was limited to the years 107-31 B. [Sidon minted very few autonomous coins during the Roman occupation. But how could Tyre retain its status as a hellenistic polis during the first hundred years of Roman rule? The tetradrachms of Nero were made of a poor siver alloy, one of the results of the rampant economic inflation under this emperor which continued under Vespasian and Titus. In the case of the Roman East, the production of debased coins affected other coinages (such as that of the Nabataeans), causing their debasement as well. Nevertheless, this general market law had no effect on the nature of the Tyrian shekels. A revision of view regarding both the attribution and the reasons for the issuance of the late Tyrian shekels of A. 54-65/6 (years 180-191 of the Tryian era) now seems to be needed, particularly given their linkage to the Jewish shekels of the same weight and fineness which replaced them in A. 66, and their relationship to the Tyrian issues struck before A. During the hellenistic period, Jewish law, the Mishna, began to crystallize. One of the most important of these was the requirement that from the age of onwards, every male had to pay the Temple an annual tribute of half a shekel. It also made necessary the continued issuances of shekels of the Tyrian type by the Temple, or whomever was in charge of its finances, even after their discontinuation by the city mint of Tyre.The fineness of the Tyrian shekels is very high, generally 92% silver or better for the entire series, including the last issues. C.; only a very few half-shekels were struck later. Ascalon struck autonomous silver issues from the end of the second century B. Against all economic logic, they continued to be struck during Nero's reign, from A. 54 to 65, yet their silver content remained as high as before (the silver content of the shekels of the Jewish revolt against Rome, struck from A. In the Mishna, a special tractate, "Sheqalim," deals with this mandatory tribute. The Jewish Sources It is possible to find an indicationin the Jewish sources about production in Jerusalem of Tyrian shekels from Tosephta Kethuboth 13.20: "Silver mentioned in the Pentateuch is always a Tyrian silver: What is a Tyrian silver?The Teba'in (plural of teba') are noted as being the final type of currency accepted by the Temple before it was destroyed.The specific passages suggests that the term teba' represents the last stage of the Tyrian shekels, those which we now propose to have been struck by the Temple authorities in Jerusalem. It is unlikely that such a colorful and powerful personality with economic and political ambitions would not have taken advantage of the opportunity to strike a prestigious coinage; yet Herod is known to have issued only bronze coins of small denomination. Meshorer, Jewish Coins of the Second Temple Period (Tel Aviv 1967) nos. Firstly, Jerusalem's economic power under Herod was enormous. C.), Jerusalem's status was superior to that of Nabataea. It is clear, however, that these coins, and the assumptions about their attribution, need careful reexamination, taking into account both the relevant numismatic material and the historical facts. Schurer, The History of the Jewish People in the Age of Jesu (175 B. [Several historians have devoted monographs to Herod, the two most recentof which are: A. Grant, Herod the Great (New York, 1971).] Archaeologists who are familiar with the rich Herodian finds from Jerusalem, Samaria, Hebron and many other locations cannot but be both astonished and disappointed at the lack of numismatic material of the period. The absence of silver coins struck by Herod is remarkable for two main reasons. XIV, 80-81.], to the contrary, the evidence indicates that during the time of Herod (40-4 B. The only impressive silver currency of that time and region was the Tyrian shekels which the coins seem to indicate were struck at Tyre itself.
Such other silver coins which circulated contemporaneously included later Seleucid issues of various cities, including the mints of Phoenicia, [BMCSeleucid Kings 77-103, those of Demetrius II, Alexander II Zabinas, Antiochus X, Antiochus XI, Demetrius III and Tigranes II of Armenia.], and autonomous shekels of Sidon, [BMCPhoenicia 158-161.], Ascalon, [BMCPalestine 107-108.], and didrachms of Nabataea. Meshorer, "Nabataean Coins," QEDEM 3 (1975): coins of Aretas III (no. The phrase may refer to coinage struck in imitation of another issue, rather than to an autonomous series, and may in fact hint at an irregular issuance of Tyrian shekels in Jerusalem, the term "coined" being comparable to the Hebrew teba' of Mishna Sheqalim 2.4.The coin is a didrachm of Antiochus VII struck at Tyre; it is quite similar to the Tyrian shekel and is actually its prototype: the eagle is the same, the head of the Seleucid king was replaced by the head of Heracles; the inscription is essentially the main innovation.This didrachm has a rectangular countermark on its obverse depicting the letters Pl H to represent the date: year 118 of the Tyrian era = 9 B. We believe that the Temple authorities approved the use of this Seleucid didrachm as if it were a Tyrian shekel by affixing this countermark.‘Each one who is numbered in the census shall give this: half a shekel according to the shekel of the sanctuary (the shekel is twenty gerahs), half a shekel as an offering to the Lord.’ ” (Exodus ) That temple tax was collected even during Christ’s lifetime and is referenced in the New Testament.“Jesus entered the Temple and began to drive out all the people buying and selling animals for sacrifice. Herod conquered Jerusalem and became sole ruler of the province. He has still to contend with many hostile powers but emerges victorious from all battles. [Sidon: BMCPhoenicia 159; Ascalon: BMCPalestine 107-108; and several Cappadocian kings: BMCGalatia etc. In this regard, the issuance of silver coinage by the Nabataean kings is particularly noteworthy. The die cutters of these early issues did a highly artistic and professional job. 37-55.] The absence of Herodian silver or gold coinage has intrigued many numismatists in the past; to fill this gap, some have even suggested that he minted certain Roman aurei and denarii of cruder style or oriental appearance. Josephus' accounts of Herod's activities in Judea and elsewhere tell of the expenditure of huge sums of money for buildings and other grandiose projects, and demonstrate Herod's strength of personality, his wealth, and his special interest in economic affairs. XV, 292-298; 318; 326-341; 364; 380-425.] Secondly, as has been noted above, other cities in the area subject to Rome were striking their own autonomous silver coinage. Yet the Nabataeans struck substantial aounts of silver coins from 63 B. The Style of the Tyrian Shekels Two characteristics stand out in regard to the various shekels. The earlier shekels are of good style and are struck with dies smaller than the flans, thus permitting the entire design and inscription to be included on the coins.The inscription of this new coin type, however, differentiates it completely from the Seleucid coinages of Tyre. 123-148).] Although they controlled the area from 63 B. onwards, the Romans were not quick to introduce their own coinage in the East, and local finds of Roman coins from the time of Pompey and Julius Caesar are extremely rare. C., during the reign of Augustus, that the mint of Antioch began to strike Roman provincial issues. Wruck, Die syrische Provinzialpragung von Augustus bis Trajan (Stuttgart 1931) 178. 166.] This date, which marks the beginning of Roman monetary domination of the eastern provinces, has been generally assumed to reflect a fiscal as well as political turning point in the area. C.) in monogram form, XX, where the letter A is also visible.Instead of the king's name, the inscription now reads XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX . Despite this change, however, vast quantities of Tyrian shekels continued to be struck, seemingly anachronistically, from 18 B. It is possible that word KAPTEPOXX, meaning strong, potent, fixed, all referring to the value of the coin, may be implied by this monogram; it may also mean KAPTOXX (or KPATOXX), referring to the power of the regime. that bear the letters KP, or these letters in monogram form. 70 they circulated extensively in the Middle East, mainly in the regions of Phoenicia, Galilee, Judea, Syria and Transjordan. Jones, The Cities of the Eastern Roman Provinces (Oxford 1971) 237-239; 249-250; 253; 259; 270; and 287.] that Tyre entered a period of political decline towards the end of the first century B. The earlier shekels are concave; the later ones are not.The obverse of the new issue depicts the head of Heracles-Melkart instead of the Seleucid king, and the reverse shows an eagle standing on the prow of a ship with a palm branch over its shoulder, similar to that which appeared on the earlier Seleucid issues. 6, 65, 85-86, 94-96, 98-111), and Malichus II (nos. They remain enigmatic, but some ideas about their meaning may now be proposed, particularly as they appear on the first issues (struck in 18 B.